Home Business solutions for energy cooperation
“Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a collaborative approach concerning physical exchange of materials, energy, and services among different companies” (). The European Commission () explicitly recommended the fostering on IS practices to boost production efficiency and resource productivity, underlying their sustainability-related advantages – i.e. environmental, economic, and social advantages (; ).
As such, Business Models (BMs) implementing industrial symbiosis principles are considered as BMs for sustainability, and they are mainly classified under the Bocken et al. ()’s classification of technical grouping.
The business model’s archetypes within the technical grouping are three: